Write in detail about any three informed search strategies


When beginning a search for information, it is important to first consider what you already know about your topic. This prior knowledge can be used to help focus your search and make it more efficient. This is known as an informed search strategy.

There are a number of different informed search strategies that you can use, and the best one to use will depend on your particular situation. Here are three of the most common informed search strategies:

  1. Identify Keywords
    The first step in any search is to identify the keywords that you will use. Keywords are the words or phrases that best describe what you are looking for. In order to choose the best keywords, it is helpful to think about what you already know about the topic. For example, if you were looking for information on penguins, some good keywords to use might be “penguins,” “Antarctica,” “flightless birds,” etc.
  2. Use Subject Headings
    Subject headings are terms that are used to describe the main topic of a piece of information. They are often used in library catalogs and databases to help organize information. For example, if you were looking for information on penguins, some good subject headings might be “penguins,” “birds,” “animal behavior,” etc.
  3. Identify Relevant Websites
    Another way to focus your search is to identify websites that are likely to have relevant information. This can be done by looking at the website’s domain name (e.g., .edu for educational websites, .gov for government websites) or by doing a quick search for reviews of the website. For example, if you were looking for information on penguins, some good websites to start with might be the websites of zoos or aquariums that have penguins, like the San Diego Zoo (sandiegozoo.org) or the Aquarium of the Pacific (aquariumofpacific.org).
    What are Informed Search Strategies?

    Informed search strategies are algorithms used in combinatorial optimization to help find solutions that are “good enough” while using as little time and resources as possible. These algorithms are able to make use of problem-specific knowledge in order to direct the search process towards more promising areas of the search space.

There are many different informed search strategies, and the appropriate strategy to use depends on the specific problem being tackled. Some common informed search strategies include simulated annealing, tabu search, and greedy algorithms.

Simulated annealing is a stochastic approach that is inspired by how heat affects matter. The basic idea is that a solution that is “too hot” (that is, far from the optimum) is more likely to make random changes that will move it closer to the optimum than a solution that is “just right” or “too cold” (already closer to the optimum). This approach can be used for both continuous and discrete optimization problems.

Tabu search is another heuristic approach that tries to avoid getting “stuck” in local optima by keeping track of which solutions have been explored and making sure that previously explored solutions are not revisited for a certain number of steps. This helps ensure that the algorithm does not get stuck repeating the same pattern over and over without making any progress towards the global optimum.

Greedy algorithms work by always choosing the next best option according to some criteria, without considering whether or not this choice might lead to sub-optimal solutions further down the road. While this might seem like a bad idea, it can often lead to very good results in practice, especially if combined with other informed search strategies such as tabu search or simulated annealing.

The Three Types of Informed Search Strategies

There are three main types of informed search strategies: constraint satisfaction, best-first, and hill-climbing. All three of these informed search strategies have their own pros and cons, so it’s important to understand all of them before deciding which one to use.

Pre-Search Activities

Before you even start your search, it is important to do some “pre-search activities.” By taking the time to do these activities, you will save yourself time and frustration later.

  1. Define your research topic: The first step is to choose a topic that you are interested in and that meets the assignment requirements. Once you have chosen a topic, you need to narrow it down to a specific focus. For example, if your topic is “baseball,” you might narrow it down to “the history of baseball” or “the physics of pitching.”
  2. Identify key concepts: Once you have a focus for your research, the next step is to identify the key concepts related to your topic. Key concepts are the words or phrases that best describe what your topic is about. For example, if your focus is “the history of baseball,” key concepts might include “baseball,” “history,” “sports,” and ” America.”
  3. Develop a research question: The next step is to turn your focus and key concepts into a research question. A research question is a question that you want to answer through your research. It should be specific enough that you can answer it within the scope of your paper or project, but not so specific that you cannot find enough information on the subject. For example, if your focus is “the history of baseball,” a good research question might be “What are the origins of baseball in America?”
  4. Identify relevant sources: Once you have developed a research question, the next step is to identify sources that will help you answer that question. Not all sources are created equal! Some sources (such as magazines and newspapers) are more reliable than others (such as websites and blogs). Think about who created the source and why they might have created it before deciding whether or not to use it in your research.
    During Search Activities

    There are three different types of informed search strategies that can be used during search activities:
  5. Pre-search: This type of strategy is used before starting the search process. It involves defining the problem and goals, and creating a search plan.
  6. Search: This type of strategy is used during the actual search process. It involves using different techniques to find information, such as keywords, Boolean operators, and truncation.
  7. Post-search: This type of strategy is used after the search process is complete. It involves evaluating the information that was found and determining if it is useful.
    Post-Search Activities
    After you’ve found the information you were looking for, there are still some important things to do. These are Post-Search Activities.

First, take a look at all the information you’ve found. Ask yourself if it is really what you were looking for. If it isn’t, go back to your search strategy and try something different.

Second, evaluate the quality of the information you’ve found. Not all information on the Internet is created equal! You can learn more about how to do this in the “Evaluating the Quality of Information” module.

Finally, think about ways that you can use the information you’ve found. Maybe you can share it with others, or use it to create something new.


While there is no single right way to search for information, using informed search strategies can help you get better results. Informed search strategies involve using resources like Boolean operators and advanced search features, as well as thinking critically about your topic to come up with the best keywords. By using a combination of these techniques, you can make sure you’re getting the most relevant and accurate results for your needs.

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